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A. V. Makarov  N. A. Davydova  I. Y. Malygina  V. V. Lyzhin  L. G. Korshunov

IMPROVING THE THERMAL STABILITY AND HEAT WEAR RESISTANCE OF CARBURIZED CHROMIUM-NICKEL STEEL BY NANOSTRUCTURING FRICTIONAL TREATMENT

DOI: 10.17804/2410-9908.2016.5.049-066

Purpose. Carburized chromium-nickel steels are widely used in the manufacture of drilling tools, gears, shafts, bushings and other parts which may be subjected to thermal effects and significant heating by friction at high speeds of sliding during operation. The aim of the paper is studying the possibilities of increasing the resistance of carburized chromium-nickel steel to thermal softening and heat seizure in the case of high-speed sliding friction by frictional treatment with sliding indenters. Methods. Steel 20KhN3A (wt.%: 0.20 C, 0.68 Cr, 2.90 Ni, 0.14 Mo) is subjected to carburizing, three heat treatments (quenching from 810 °C in oil; quenching and deep-freeze treatment at −196 °C; quenching and tempering at 180 °C) and frictional treatment using Al2O3 or hard-alloy VK8 indenters. The structure and phase composition of the steel are studied by transmission electron microscopy and X-ray analysis. The effect of tempering temperature in a vacuum at 100 °C to 700 °C on the microhardness of the carburized steel surface and the tribological properties (wear rate and friction coefficient) during unlubricated friction on the steel disk with sliding speeds of 1.5 and 4.5 m/s is determined. Results: Friction treatment leads to the formation of a nanostructured surface layer and increases the hardness of the carburized surfaces from 7.3‒9.5 to 10.1‒11.6 GPa. The presence of metastable retained austenite (25‒30 vol.%) in low-tempered steel provides a significant increase in the depth of hardening during friction treatment as a result of the deformation decay of austenite and its transformation into high-strength strain-induced martensite. Nanostructuring frictional treatment improves the resistance to softening of carburized steel with different initial structures during heating to temperatures of 500‒600 °C. Frictional treatment of quenched and low-tempered carburized steel enhances the heat wear resistance in tests with sliding friction at high speeds (over 2 m/s), when there is an intense in frictional heat, leading to the thermal softening of the surface. Nanostructuring frictional treatment provides not only a significant increase in wear resistance, but also a decrease in the friction coefficient at sliding speeds of 2.3‒3.0 m/s.

Keywords: steel, carburization, quenching, deep-freeze treatment, tempering, frictional treatment, nanocrystalline structure, thermal stability, sliding friction, tribological properties

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А. В. Макаров, Н. А. Давыдова, И. Ю. Малыгина, В. В. Лыжин, Л. Г. Коршунов

ПОВЫШЕНИЕ ТЕПЛОСТОЙКОСТИ И СОПРОТИВЛЕНИЯ ТЕПЛОВОМУ ИЗНАШИВАНИЮ ЦЕМЕНТИРОВАННОЙ ХРОМОНИКЕЛЕВОЙ СТАЛИ НАНОСТРУКТУРИРУЮЩЕЙ ФРИКЦИОННОЙ ОБРАБОТКОЙ

Цементуемые хромоникелевые стали широко используются при производстве бурового инструмента, шестерен, валов и других деталей, которые при эксплуатации могут подвергаться значительному фрикционному нагреву. В работе изучены возможности повышения сопротивления термическому разупрочнению и тепловому схватыванию при трении скольжения хромоникелевой цементированной стали 20ХН3А (мас. %: 0,20 С; 0,68 Cr; 2,9 Ni; 0,14 Mo) за счет проведения фрикционной обработки скользящими инденторами из Al2O3 и твердого сплава ВК8. Определяли влияние температуры отпуска в вакууме при 100-700 °С на микротвердость цементированной поверхности стали и трибологические свойства (интенсивность изнашивания и коэффициент трения) при трении без смазки по стальному диску со скоростями скольжения 1,5-4,5 м/с. Установлено, что фрикционная обработка приводит к формированию на цементированной поверхности наноструктурированного упрочненного до 10,1-11,6 ГПа поверхностного слоя. Продемонстрирована роль метастабильного остаточного аустенита, присутствующего в количестве 25-30 об. % в низкоотпущенной стали, в увеличении глубины упрочнения цементированного слоя при фрикционной обработке. У цементированной стали с различными исходными структурами после фрикционной обработки выявлено повышенное сопротивление разупрочнению при нагреве. В результате наноструктурирующей фрикционной обработки закаленной и низкоотпущенной цементированной стали установлено повышение сопротивления тепловому изнашиванию и снижение коэффициента трения при трении скольжения со скоростями более 2 м/с, обуславливающими значительный фрикционный нагрев поверхности.

Ключевые слова: сталь, цементация, закалка, обработка холодом, отпуск, фрикционная обработка, нанокристаллическая структура, теплостойкость, трение скольжения, трибологические свойства

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Библиографическая ссылка на статью

Korshunov A. V. Makarov  N. A. Davydova  I. Y. Malygina  V. V. Lyzhin  L. G. Improving the Thermal Stability and Heat Wear Resistance of Carburized Chromium-Nickel Steel by Nanostructuring Frictional Treatment [Electronic resource] // Diagnostics, Resource and Mechanics of materials and structures. - 2016. - Iss. 5. - P. 49-66. -
DOI: 10.17804/2410-9908.2016.5.049-066. -
URL: http://dream-journal.org/issues/2016-5/2016-5_99.html
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